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Tuning the strength of built-in electric field in 2D/2D g-C3N4/SnS2 and g-C3N4/ZrS2 S-scheme heterojunctions by nonmetal doping

Single photocatalysts usually exhibit unsatisfactory performance due to the serious recombination of photogenerated electron‒hole pairs. Combining two photocatalysts to construct S-scheme heterojunction could solve this problem. In S-scheme mechanism, the interfacial built-in electric field (IEF) provides a vital driving force for efficient charge separation. Modifying the IEF is a feasible strategy to further improve the photocatalytic activity. Herein, a novel idea of tuning the strength of IEF in 2D/2D graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)/MS2 (M = Sn, Zr) S-scheme heterojunctions by nonmetal doping was developed by employing density functional theory calculation. Three nonmetal elements (O, P, and S) were severally introduced into g-C3N4/MS2 composites. Charge density difference suggested that O and S doping led to increased interfacial electron transfer, while P doping had minimal influence. As expected, the calculated field strength of O- and S-doped g-C3N4/MS2 composites was significantly larger than that of pristine and P-doped g-C3N4/MS2 composites. Therefore, O and S doping endowed g-C3N4/MS2 S-scheme heterojunctions with enhanced IEF and more thorough charge transfer. Correspondingly, the experimentally synthesized O-C3N4/SnS2 composite exhibited better photocatalytic H2-production activity than g-C3N4/SnS2 composite. This work proposed an original idea of employing proper nonmetal doping to magnify the advantage of S-scheme heterojunction in accelerating charge separation.

Journal of Materiomics SCIE | 2021 | 7 (5)

The proteomic analysis shows enrichment of RNA surveillance pathways in adult SHH and extensive metabolic reprogramming in Group 3 medulloblastomas

Medulloblastoma, a common malignant brain tumor in children, comprises four molecular subgroups WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. In the present study, we performed a deep proteome-based investigation of SHH, Group 3 and Group 4 tumors. The adult SHH medulloblastomas were found to have a distinct proteomic profile. Several RNA metabolism-related pathways including mRNA splicing, 5′ to 3′ RNA decay, 3′ to 5′ RNA decay by the RNA exosome, and the N6-methyladenosine modification of RNA were enriched in adult SHH tumors. The heightened expression of the RNA surveillance pathways is likely to be essential for the viability of adult SHH subgroup medulloblastomas, which carry mutations in U1snRNA encoding gene and thus could be a vulnerability of these tumors. Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastomas, on the other hand, are known to have an overlap in their expression profiles and underlying genetic alterations. Group 3 proteome was found to be distinctively enriched in several metabolic pathways including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glutamine anabolism, glutathione-mediated anti-oxidant pathway, and drug metabolism pathway suggests that the extensive metabolic rewiring is likely to be responsible for the aggressive clinical behavior of Group 3 tumors. This comprehensive proteomic analysis has provided valuable insight into the biology of Group 3 and adult SHH medulloblastomas, which could be further explored for effective treatment of these tumors.

BRAIN TUMOR PATHOLOGY SCIE | 2021 |

Distribution of juvenile American horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, USA

In order to effectively manage a fishery, it is important to know the essential habitats used by all life history stages of the species being managed. However, this is often a challenge for animals such as the American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus, whose juvenile stages are difficult to find and quantify. Visual surveys and suction sampling have been used in previous studies, but in the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire, they are less effective, and so little is known about the habitats occupied by juvenile horseshoe crabs in this area. To fill this knowledge gap, we used SCUBA-dive surveys to locate juvenile horseshoe crabs. We found them on subtidal and some intertidal mudflats in the upper regions of the estuary, both adjacent to, and at some distance from, known spawning beaches. However we did not find them in either intertidal or subtidal areas adjacent to spawning beaches just 1-2 km closer to the coast. These data should be useful for future conservation efforts designed to protect essential horseshoe crab habitats in the Great Bay and other similar estuaries.

MARINE ECOLOGY PROGRESS SERIES SCI,SCIE | 2021 | 662

The gradual subjective consciousness fluctuation in implicit sequence learning and its relevant brain activity

Existing studies have investigated gradual subjective consciousnesses, guess, intuition, fluency, rule, and memory, and their fluctuation behavioral characteristics in implicit learning, but they did not investigate or elucidate the underlying brain mechanisms. Therefore, the current study asked participants to report subjective consciousnesses in each trial of inclusion and exclusion tasks after implicit sequence learning and used the eyes-closed and eyes-opened resting-states’ fMRI to examine the relevant brain areas of the five gradual subjective consciousnesses and their fluctuation. The results showed that: (1) There were many relevant resting-state brain areas of the five gradual subjective consciousnesses to reveal their brain mechanisms. In the eyes-closed and eyes-opened resting states, as the participants' consciousness level was gradually increasing from guess to intuition, to fluency, to rule, and to memory, the positively-relevant brain areas correspondingly changed from somatic motor to a mixture of somatic motor, consciousness, emotion feeling, and implicit learning; and then to a mixture of visual, somatic motor, and consciousness; and then to a mixture of visual, somatic motor, and consciousness; and then to a mixture of visual, somatic motor, and consciousness. The negatively-relevant brain areas correspondingly changed from a mixture of visual, consciousness, somatic sensory, and implicit learning to a mixture of visual, somatic motor, somatic sensory, and other consciousness; and then to memory; and then to a mixture of other somatic motors; and then to a mixture of other consciousness and other somatic motors. However, in the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFFs)-difference, the relative directions of the guess and intuition were almost opposite to those in the eyes-closed and eyes-opened resting states. But the relative directions of the fluency, rule, and memory were consistent with those in the eyes-closed and eyes-opened resting states. (2) There were significant gradual subjective consciousness fluctuations, including the gradual subjective consciousness fluctuation-all M and SD. There were many relevant resting-state brain areas of gradual subjective consciousness fluctuations to reveal their brain mechanisms. The gradual subjective consciousness fluctuation M was positively related to Calcarine_R, Lingual_R, Lingual_R, Temporal_Pole_Mid_L, ParaHippocampal_L, Vermis_1_2, and Vermis_7; but was negatively related to Calcarine_R. The gradual subjective consciousness fluctuation-all SD was positively related to Parietal_Inf_L, Thalamus_L, Temporal_Mid_L, Vermis_9, Parietal_Inf_L, and Thalamus_L and Thalamus_R; but was negatively related to Rolandic_Oper_R, Rolandic_Oper_R, Insula_L, Insula_R, Cingulum_Post_L, and Temporal_Mid_L. The detailed function of the relevant brain areas of consciousness fluctuations needs further investigation. (3) ALFFs in eyes-closed and eyes-opened resting states and their ALFFs-difference could differently predict the five gradual subjective consciousnesses and their fluctuations, indicating that using the two resting states was necessary, and the ALFFs-difference was a new quantitative sensitivity index of the gradual subjective consciousnesses and their fluctuations.

Neuropsychologia SCI,SSCI,SCIE | 2021 | 160

SARS-CoV-2 antibody kinetics eight months from COVID-19 onset: Persistence of spike antibodies but loss of neutralizing antibodies in 24% of convalescent plasma donors

Elucidating the characteristics of human immune response against SARS-CoV-2 is of high priority and relevant for determining vaccine strategies. We report the results of a follow-up evaluation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 148 convalescent plasma donors who participated in a phase 2 study at a median of 8.3 months (range 6.8–10.5 months) post first symptom onset. Monitoring responses over time, we found contraction of antibody responses for all four antigens tested, with Spike antibodies showing higher persistence than Nucleocapsid antibodies. A piecewise linear random-effects multivariate regression analysis showed a bi-phasic antibody decay with a more pronounced decrease during the first 6 months post symptoms onset by analysis of two intervals. Interestingly, antibodies to Spike showed better longevity whereas their neutralization ability contracted faster. As a result, neutralizing antibodies were detected in only 76% of patients at the last time point. In a multivariate analysis, older age and hospitalization were independently associated with higher Spike, Spike-RBD, Nucleocapsid, N-RBD antibodies and neutralizing antibody levels. Results on persistence and neutralizing ability of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, especially against Spike and Spike-RBD, should be considered in the design of future vaccination strategies.

European Journal of Internal Medicine SCIE | 2021 | 89